Lawn statues are an interesting attribute of landscape design, which history of origin takes its roots in antiquity. Even in ancient Greece tradition of decorating gardens with statues depicting characters mostly mythology, enjoyed great popularity.
And the peoples of the East, that were placing symbolic representations of animals near their houses (so-called wards), believed that they protect themselves from evil forces.
Passing through the century, the present trend in garden design is still important, though it has almost lost its largely symbolic connotations. Today, garden sculptures are in high demand, like for the owners of small household plots, both for the hosts of impressive suburban estates and sites. Landscaping design using the garden of sculptures is considered, in spite of a long history, is fashionable and original solution of garden design.
Sculpture (from the latin «Sculpo», which means “to cut, carve”) is a type of fine art, whose works have three-dimensional shape and are made of solid or plastic materials.
Sculpture garden is a third-dimensional, generally a human or any animal.
Its size is mainly close to the actual size of the imaged object, or even exceeds it.
Garden sculpture might look, in addition to the statue, also like:
- a monument of the plate, triumphal arches, columns, busts, etc.;
- an obelisk – a tetrahedral pillar like a pyramid with the aspirations of small end upwards;
- stelae – stone slabs, arranged perpendicular to the ground.
Garden sculpture in the improvement of small private plots is used in the form of small ceramic figurines, which are mass produced by different companies for a wide range of buyers – a variety of snails, ducks, cats, frogs, storks, gnomes, elves, bald fat men resembling a smiling Buddha and many, many others. Similar products are easy to buy and install in any corner of the garden, among the greenery, along the tracks or near the flowerbeds, it will not be difficult to move them from place to place, and in winter to move them to the room.
Garden ceramic figurines are appropriate in small areas, but if it goes on much of the territory of the area, then you can easily design and use a more “serious” material for your statue. For example, marble was considered the classic material for sculpture from ancient times. It has been marble that for the most part was used in antiquity and the Renaissance. But eventually marble has the ability to break down, which remains pertinent in our time, complicated by the environmental problems. Today, therefore, landscape designers prefer granite. According to experts, it is pretty well handled, so it is easier to create original works of art, and has a high resistance to weathering.
Towels are an indispensable attribute of every bathroom. Quantity of towels for a family member, the material and methods of storage can be different, but hygiene requirements are the most important.
In each house certainly there is a shelf or even a wardrobe which purpose is towels storing. That is not a secret that their number should not be limited by one or two.
Every person needs several towels:
- for the hands and face;
- bath towel;
- for legs;
- for private parts.
Also, it is important to remember the most common sizes of towels. Almost at the every store you will find a standard 100×150 cm bath towel, average one of 70×125 cm hand towel of 50×90 cm, and the smallest for the face of 30×30 cm. On the market there are other sizes of towels, which will be useful for people with large growth and bodily constitution.
For a typical family of 4 people 16 towels are required, but it is also necessary to have extra towels. To visit the gym or pool it is useful to have little microfiber towels. Also usually at every house there are special guest towels. Usually they the same quality but different colors to make it easier to distinguish.
Many families are concerned about the small towels for each individual, in some homes, hand towels and face is shared by all family members. Bath towel can also be for all members individual for everyone. Sometimes, they are break down on the principle: one for adults, the other one is for children.
Hygiene rules are kept very easy – they are washed often. After the shower towel goes to the washing machine, face and hands are wiped for one day, then the towel is washed.
Which fabric should be the material for bath towels?
Regardless of the number of towels, they should be of high quality, soft, natural, washable fabrics – cotton, bamboo or flax.
Terry cotton or bamboo towels are permanent leaders among bathroom textile. But we should not buy cheap products with sloppy edges, they are usually substandard and do not absorb moisture.
Bamboo towels are soft, practical, have a wide range of colors and textures, but their main advantage is hypoallergenicity, these towels can be used even in the care of infants.
Another novelty is microfiber products – lightweight, with excellent wear resistance, thin but with good absorbency. They will be invaluable at travels, at the beach or a hike.
Where should the towels be stored?
Each bathroom has a heated towel rail, which is convenient to hang a wet towel on. You can use special hooks or holders.
So, white towels will suit any design, they will bring freshness and purity. They need to be washed more often than colored products, but they are made without the addition of dyes. In order not to focus on towels, choose them to match your tiles. If your bathroom seems too pale, choose towels with an extraordinary figure, only perform a little experiment before. Take a corner of the towel and rub the product between your fingers. If the skin has the color trail – there is a possibility of using dyes with chemical additives.
You should not skimp for comfort in the kitchen as our food, and, consequently, our health depends largely from it. Cheap, low quality knives won’t last long, and soon need to be replaced. Therefore, the most reasonable solution is to opt for branded products, which are known for excellent quality. Brazilian Tramontina brand is now recognized in more than 110 countries worldwide. For the production of knives, the manufacturer uses a stainless sheet and plate steel that has a high durability, ductility, corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Vinzer knife sets are well-known for not only high quality but also the elegant design. Perfect product quality of Spanish brand Arcos also gained world fame and a reasonable price-quality ratio gives the Arcos products particularly popularity. German pedantry is widely known. In its best sense, it is manifested in the approach to the virtually perfect quality products under the brand Berghoff and Gipfel. The advantage of these blades is that they casting design in which there are no seams between the handle and the blade.
It turns out that there are many types of knives, and each of them has its own special purpose. Each of them has a different shape of the blade and edges of the cutting surface. In the set of experienced cooks, usually there are at least 20 instruments. However, conventional kitchen set does not require such diversity. As the necessity it is considered the presence of three main knives with conventional blades and the pointed end – large, medium and small. In addition, you need a twisted knife for cutting bread and kitchen ax for cutting large pieces of meat.
The basic components of any knife are the handle and the blade.
The easiest solution would be to give preference to a wooden handle option. Today knives with a plastic handle are in vogue, but in this case the choice of products has to be especially critical. Plastic must be heat-resistant and high-tech, and its fixation with the blade – tight. It is important that the rivets are secure and carefully polished. Especially avoid models with molded plastic handle without rivets, blade of knife cannot be safely secured, and therefore, in the process it shatters and falls out very quickly. As for the metal handle, the practicality of it cannot be denied, but comfortable working in the kitchen in this case should not expected.
Best knife blades are forged ones. Most modern kitchen knives are made of stainless steel with chromium, due to the qualities of which the blade becomes very strong. When looking upon the knife before the purchase, it is important to pay attention to its color. Similarity of colors characterizes the quality of the alloy.
Every housewife knows that little things create comfort in the house. What could be even easier than the walk-off carpet? However, such a familiar and simple attribute actually performs an important function: it prevents the spread of street dirt and dust in the apartment. And for the mat to fully cope with the task, when you select it that is necessary to consider a lot of different nuances.
Ideally, there should be two carpets: inside and outside the house. The outer mat takes on the dirty work, so it must be very durable and easy to clean.
In terms of attractiveness, fleecy rugs are the most attractive. They perfectly complement the interior hallway and help to create a homely atmosphere. It is recommended to choose a product with a short and medium pile of high density. Such models absorb both water and dust. At the same time, they require careful handling. Several times a week mats should be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner and for removing obstinate stains, you can use special cleaning products. Care should be taken so that nappy pad would not remain wet for a long time, or it may lose its pretty appearance.
Rubber mats are more practical. They are distinguished by high wear resistance, non-slip effect and totally unpretentious care. This mat is not afraid of moisture, so it will last much longer than nappy. Another advantage is a relatively low cost. But rubber mats cannot boast a variety of models and colors; their design is limited to a few standard patterns. Particularly it is necessary to mention rubber mats with bristly surface. Soft villi penetrate the relief sole and clean off the dirt well. The successful combination of price and quality – that is about mats of foamed PVC, which on the strength characteristics is not inferior to rubber.
Floor mats with rubber base
The surface of the mats with rubber base is made of natural rubber. This is an environmentally friendly material, which is considered one of the most durable. Its distinctive feature is the ability to withstand extreme temperatures and thus a pad can be put not only in the hall, but on the street in front of the house. The rubber mat can be vacuumed, cleaned with detergents and even washed.
In addition to the quality of the material must you should also consider coloring of the rug. Very light or very dark-colored models are the most easily soiled. For the dirt to be less visible, it is recommended to decide in favour of a colored rug with some pattern. With proper and timely care of any hallway carpet – whether it’s nappy, rubber or elastic – it will last for a long time.
In addition, it is important that stain-resistant doorway mats were firmly fastened to the floor. Generally, reverse side of rubber items is equipped with special stickers that securely fix the product.
When choosing a rug under the door or inside the premises – in the hallway or corridor, pay attention to its quality and design, and then you’ll be happy with your purchase.
From the very first days of life the child must have his own clearly defined and drawn up in line with his needs space. At the same time to prepare the room for a tiny resident is much more difficult than to design your own bedroom or living room. After all, when creating the interior of children’s room you need to take into account the thousands of little things which are not important for an adult, but vital for the tiny creatures. About these very small things with a capital letter we will tell you in this article.
The first two months of life, babies sleep for 16-20 hours a day. And all the while they are in their cribs. So this piece of furniture is the basis of the entire interior and has every right to take a central position in the nursery. By putting a crib in the middle of the room, you automatically deal with several problems at once.
First of all Crib placed like that is located at a maximum distance from the front door and walls adjacent to the noisy rooms (kitchen, living room).
Secondly, you will protect your baby from the harmful effects of heating radiators that will dry his skin.
Third, the baby won’t catch a cold from a long stay near the cold outer wall. In addition, the bed is better to put in a slightly lit area. It is also desirable to separate the recreation area and a zone of games for the baby from the very first months of life to develop a clear association on the delimitation of the living space. In bed, he should just sleep, but for all other activities there are other places.
The first months and years of life are in close cooperation with his mother, so it is very important to create a comfortable environment in the nursery, not only for the baby, but also for his nurse. It is advisable to put there a bed for mom, so she would not have to run to the beloved babe from the other room every half hour, when it will start teething. To the kid it was convenient to feed and rock, it is better to buy a comfortable rocking chair. A changing table and chest of drawers for the first baby clothes will complement the mother’s place.
Of course, in the first months of baby’s life you do not get to play with him in the mobile games, and reading books on the joint will unlikely have any sense. But as soon as a child begins to shake the rattles and pull his hands to the bright toys, baby room must be equipped with a special area for games. There must be boxes or baskets for toys, tummy-time mat for infants and a playpen. Design and equip the area for games with the child in active games and a place where you will show your child pictures of books, toys and various items properly.
Mandatory attribute of baby room is a small night light near the head of the crib. It is advisable to buy a night light with controlled lighting levels, which are not too large in size and suitable for the overall style of the room by its appearance.
The bright design of the pond and flower beds
It is interesting that the originality of some ideas is off the charts, but it’s just for the best, because the creativity at the backyard territory is always welcome. Today we suggest you to start with rather interesting design ideas of small pond or flower beds.
First idea is a lovely and inexpensive fencing with your own hands, which can be created from timber strip, concrete columns, or even the old railway sleepers. There’s nothing complicated here – an even out-laying of elements in the form of landscape element attached to the surface of the earth connection under the roller (“dog”). The ‘dog’ manufacturing may seem complicated to you, but if you take foam of high-density into the hands, the product like that can be cut without any difficulties. If you have the opportunity to weld this element, you are welcome.
The recreation area and a “green” table
Many of us love the natural elements that adorn the holiday’s territory, so our next design idea here is to set such a table in a recreation area at the backyard. Its assembling is very simple, and for that you do not need to hire creative figures who will take a lot of money for such work. Cool DIY table can be done on your own. You only need to build a rectangular, cubical construction of brick or stone, make special side plates for the production of plants (for example, even to mount a standard cassette), and edge a construction with moss. We do not promise that you will this beauty immediately, but if you try, then over time you will get a unique holiday table, on which you should only install the countertop.
Holiday ornaments made of old furniture
It is not necessary to throw away old furniture, because it can help you to beautify the territory landscape in a very original way. For example, we will use the old chair, to which seat we will mount pots or cache pots with flowers. That may be other plants that decorate an old chair, as long as you liked them.
Setting the pot into the seat of the chair is very simple. Further it will need to get a standard care. Old furniture can also be little pulled and painted to make it last for a longer period of time
Fishing attributes at the backyard
Do you live near a river or lake and enjoy fishing? Then any old boat, which is no longer used for its intended purpose will decorate the garden landscape perfectly. As you can see, its exterior can be fixed easily and the wonderful flowers can be planted inside of it. It is advisable to use a special shelf or cassettes for the soil inside the boat to not fill the entire boat with soil. Also, be sure to plant non-perennial crops, they are less fastidious, and they can be changed every year to qualitatively change the garden look.
Tuning the car is a process of car improvement by installing emergency units, assemblies and components, altering certain properties of the machine (including appearance).
Improvement of cars has no limits. The subject is interesting and exciting. Tuning can include quite serious changes in the design of the engine, suspension and other vehicle systems. The English word «tuning» refers to the term “setting”. And what, in fact, do we set up?
Tuning is called the art of giving to one of hundreds similar standard cars its own unique face. It is the art of giving the holder of the vehicle a sense of individuality. Many of them, in principle, happy with their cars, but sometimes they really want it to be something different from thousands of other cars.
The simplest thing is the external finish. From banal stickers, toning up batches of plastic and even “body kits» (equipment set for external tuning, modular set of equipment for a specific machine). Of course, these actions will have no effect on the technical characteristics of the car. However, if you want to really increase the “ability” of your “iron horse”, then stickers are not enough.
Here you need a serious work with all systems of the car.
For those who are not ‘driving fast, but flying low “spoilers will be very useful. They enhance the clamp to the road. Also, they will need and additional air intakes for brakes cooling. All changes will be used to increase the power and speed of a vehicle.
Next in complexity are minor technical changes – ‘chip tuning’ (modification of software in the electronic control units of vehicles) or ‘tuned’ exhaust system. All this will increase the capacity without any major alterations of the motor.
The next level maens changes affecting aggregates and components. Here it is not necessary to experiment, because many operations require scientific computing, or at least experience. The most popular variant of tuning cars is to the “ring” sports. At this stage an ordinary “driver” begins to compete in street racing.
At the level of the major vehicle component parts modification there are already changes of gearbox with modified gear ratios, the replacement of gears. Such changes (of course, not counting excesses) do not require serious restructuring of the entire vehicle. After all, machines are mainly created for the average consumer, and allow the displacement of the individual parameters in a specific corridor.
Completing our tuning list superlight and heavy-duty engines, transmissions with stunning features. Among the epithets “super”, there are super prices. In addition to exclusivity, it is predicated upon the materials – strong light alloys, composites, carbon fiber.
A good alternative to natural grass can be an artificial grass pitch. Modern artificial grass on its qualitative characteristics is fully consistent with natural grass, but in comparison, has a number of significant advantages:
- Exploitation of artificial grass is available throughout the year. Artificial grass is resistant to temperature changes;
- Artificial grass is resistant to contacts with sports shoes and high loads for a long time;
- It is easy to care for your lawn. To restore the shape of the lawn after an active load, for example, if it is a football field, it is enough “to comb” rake the grass and pick up trash from the lawn;
- Artificial grass nap is tactilely pleasant; on the artificial turf it is very pleasant to walk barefoot, which makes it irreplaceable and easy to use as a coating for children’s playgrounds.
Artificial grass is divided into sports artificial grass and landscaping artificial grass. The difference between these types of impact is in the pile density of grass and a method of synthetic turf laying, as well as usage.
Sport artificial grass is an excellent quality sports coverage for virtually all sports fields – football fields, tennis courts, volleyball courts, golf courses,etc.
Landscape or artificial decorative artificial grass is made in another way. Usually it consists of two types of pile: the long fibers simulate blades of grass and twisted fiber substrate in the bottom of the coating stabilizes the stems and gives flexibility to the coating. Landscape grass pile is thinner and softer than the sports grass one, stalks adjacent closer to each other, which improves its tactile qualities, as well as eliminates the need for backfill materials while mounting the coating and makes it more environmentally friendly. In addition, it is possible to install it indoors.
Lawns of decorative artificial grass are very often used in landscape design. Also decorative artificial grass is often used as a finishing material for “greening” the terraces, balconies and decorating architectural forms, etc. Very often artificial grass can be seen as a material for stands, decoration of boutiques, showrooms, shops, as well as decorating the interiors of restaurants and entertainment venues.
Landscaping artificial grass is recommended as the main floor at the chilaren’s playground. In addition to the aesthetic appearance of the lawn, artificial grass reduces injury risks at falls.
High-quality artificial grass can last from 5 to 25 years. Moreover, its decorative appearance will be practically the same because it is resistant to temperature falls and stand UV radiation excellently, without changing its appearance.
Small carpets look great in the interior. Unlike traditional large carpets, they become the main focus of the room. In fact, the entire interior is being created around them. Small rugs help to define the different zones, and even the direction of movement, they can serve as a final touch in the design of secluded nooks for reading or intimate conversations.
Bright small rugs can decorate interiors made in too soothing neutral colors. In addition, they come in a variety of models, sizes and colors, and adding them to the interior is very simple – just enroll your carpet and enjoy it.
A small carpet is considered to be a product that at least half a meter less than the width of the room.
Shade of carpet also plays a significant role. In a dark room with windows looking to the north, it is advised to buy bright, warm palette rugs. Yellow, red, peach, camel, cream options will look nice. Visually light and heat will be added indoors. And when it’s bright and hot in the room anyway, that is better to bring it a little coolness, even visual. In this case, designers recommend to look at the blue, green, purple carpets and other tones of the cold spectrum.
The shade of the carpet should always be in harmony with the floor. On light warm undertone wood yellow-green carpets play attractively. Purple and pink tones are at their best on the floor in grayish tones. Floor of red or orange shades requires saturated carpets: whether ocher, green and juicy motifs. Dark flooring contrasts well with bright carpets: white, pastel, sky-blue or pink doll.
When a certain shade dominates in the colors of the carpet it will be great if it is duplicated in the pillows, vases and other items.
In the small living room carpet is usually used to create a recreation area with upholstered furniture, under which, in this case about a third of the carpet is hiding.
In the hallway outside the door about a meter of space, uncovered the carpet is left.
In the children’s room rugs with unusual designs, such as images of favorite cartoon characters look cute.
Under the furniture Iranian carpets will last longest, distinguished by its beauty and strength, and intricate patterns will help to hide the traces of furniture.
For open spaces it is best to choose a carpet with central medallion.
Carpets are able to adjust the proportions of the shortcomings of the room. Carpet in the horizontal strip in the narrow room creates the illusion of greater width, and dark carpet, becoming the main focus of the room, diverts attention from small errors.
Small rugs look piquant. They subtly and delicately emphasize the small elements of the interior. Mini mat beside the bed in the bedroom will give some softness to the recreation area and warm the feet of those who will be there for a vacation. The mat can serve as additional seating.
Children’s room is a small world in which the child is growing up, so every parent should be concerned about the comfort and the proper organization of this space, because there every detail of the interior matters.
Often, choosing the furniture in the nursery for very young children, the parents are based on their preferences, and for school-age children there is a need to take into account their preferences. But, nevertheless, there are some rules that you need to be guided in this matter.
- In the first place area of children’s room is important, because the number of furniture that can fit in it depend on this parameter. A small area requires compact and often non-standard accommodation, so the best option would be a customized children’s furniture, which provide for all the details and preferences of the buyer. If the room reserved for children has a large area, then you can choose any model of furniture products in standard sizes.
- Another important parameter is the number of children. For parents with two or three children it is not so easy to pick up furniture. Children’s room should be comfortable to play, recreate and to do homework. In this case, it is better to choose ready-made furniture, designed for several children. The convenient location of the beds and workplaces create comfort and personal space for each child. In this case, transformer beds fit well. They can be easily folded up and turn the sleeping accommodation into the playground.
- When furnishing your children’s bedroom, you need to take into account the child’s age. The room of nursling should be provided not only with a comfortable bed for sleeping newborn, but also for the comfort of his mother – the correct positioning of all needed in everyday life parts, for example, changing table, chest of drawers for clothes and clothing, a place to feed. Children from one to three years must have a little more space to learn to walk. At this age, you need to provide an additional table and highchair. Preschool and junior school children need more space for the game, because they are very active at this age.
- All parents understand that a child’s room design depends on the sex of the child. For girls you need to create an interior in style of dollhouse. It means soft padding, plenty of pillows, lace and ruffles, shelves occupied by puppets. The boys like the room in the style of a spaceship or a bed in the form of a racing car.
The apparent advantage of any product is the quality. The best material in the production of children’s furniture is considered to be wood. Natural solid oak and beech do not cause allergic reactions in children. Their structure is very strong and durable, it means that the product will last for years and will withstand any test of little fidgets. Besides these materials tolerate moisture. This is a very important factor, because for the nursery often wet cleaning is recommended, and children can pour water or juice, which will require extra cleaning of the items.
Landscaping of garden sites has its roots deep in the past. This is proved, for example, by legends and testimonies of various historians about the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
The main point at the planning of the plot design must be the integrity of the image. It can be reached by successive groups of items at the backyard, decorative elements, and plants themselves, depending on their texture, size and growth.
Also, a complete image can be achieved, for example, by a sequence of color schemes.
Add some sense and purpose to a given territory. It is possible to use a wide range of themes. For example this could mean the creation of a separate zone in the shape of a butterfly. To do this at the site you could bed plants that attract the most butterflies. Statues and other decorative items related to this theme also would not be out of place.
The color scheme must match the coloring of these insects. You can use a simple theme. Just select a few flowers and stick them in a choice of colors and decorations.
Popular is a division of the garden into smaller sections, with them on various issues. Such ideas for garden design you can easily find on the Internet and try to bring to life.
Romantic style of garden decoration
It is the easiest way to make out a garden, guided solely by intuition. Typical plants of this style are peonies, climbing roses, delphinium.
Clematis is also widely used in the design of the garden in this style. There are several required attributes for this design. It is, first of all, thoroughly entwined with flowers arborets and arches, as well as the prevalence of pastel colors.
Pebble garden paths will look excellent. Rest areas would be better to design semi-antique and stone by natural rock.
Typical gardens of Germany
The first distinctive feature of these gardens is that vegetables are never grown on their territory. This is done in order to save land area and also because of the love to the beautiful front garden.
Among the woody plants you can find unusual conifers, rhododendrons and lilacs. Near the house, at this site climbing vines or ivy can be seen.
Among the decorative elements ceramic and plastic figurines of rabbits, gnomes and trolls are predominated. There will also be appropriate to arrange a cart with or without flowers, as well as a miniature mill. Various pots and wicker baskets are widely used too.
There are many other styles and sub-genres of all kinds in the industry. However, conifers are used in garden design only in a few cases. As These German, Russian, and Japanese-style garden decoration can be mentioned.
If you have not decided what kind of style you want to see in your garden, look for ideas at various specialized magazines or on the Internet. The easiest way to choose a garden plot landscaping is watching videos on the Internet.
Most parents of twins or, for example, children whose age difference is small, in the future, faced with the choice of beds.
When the children grow up and you want to design a children’s room so that it was as much space, many parents prefer not to choose two separate beds, but one bunk bed.
But how to choose a bed that will be comfortable for children and take up little space?
First, let’s say about the merits of bunk beds:
- If child’s room is small, this bed makes it possible to save space!
- It is an interesting playground as children like to sleep and play at such beddings.
- It is much cheaper to buy a bunk bed than two separate beds.
What should I look for when choosing a bunk bed?
The most important is the material from which it is made. Of course, it is better when the material is safe and natural.
Many people prefer models made of metal, as they are more stable, reliable and durable. But do not forget the wooden beds, as they are also safe and comfortable. Pine, which is belonging to solid wood, valued above the rest and is a very durable material that will last many years.
Size beds are dependent primarily on the needs of the child. You can choose a longer bed or vice versa – the shorter one. The average size of these beds are 190×90 cm.
Mattress is better to get along with the beds, even despite the fact that it will cost a bit more expensive. The depth of the bunk beds should be such that the mattress did not go beyond the sides of the bed. It is great if the fillers are natural with cotton or linen finishing. Do not skimp on the mattresses, because your health, and thus well-being depends on its quality.
It is better to get this piece of furniture with rounded corners. Pay attention to its design, the junctures, everything should be perfect.
At the top tier bed should have special protective walls for a child in a dream not to fall from a height.
The distance between the two tiers should be such that you could easily sit down to a child to read a book at night or just to talk, and while that you should feel comfortable.
This bed kit should also include a handy ladder, rungs have to be frequent and handrails strong, so the child can easily climb up.
The ladder can be positioned in front, side, vertical and inclined – it depends on your preference. Also, the stairs may contain withdrawable drawers for clothes that are very convenient. Linen, clothes, toys and other things can be folded there.
Very handy if bunk bed is additionally equipped with a computer or desk, nightstand, cabinet, etc. Then you can make the most efficient use of the free area.